search menu icon-carat-right cmu-wordmark

As-If Infinitely Ranged Integer Model, Second Edition

April 2010 Technical Note
Roger Dannenberg (School of Computer Science, Carnegie Mellon University), Will Dormann, David Keaton, Thomas Plum (Plum Hall, Inc.), Robert C. Seacord, David Svoboda, Alex Volkovitsky, Timothy Wilson

In this report, the authors present the as-if infinitely ranged (AIR) integer model, a mechanism for eliminating integral exceptional conditions.


Software Engineering Institute

CMU/SEI Report Number



Integers represent a growing and underestimated source of vulnerabilities in C and C++ programs. This report presents the as-if infinitely ranged (AIR) integer model that provides a largely automated mechanism for eliminating integer overflow and truncation and other integral exceptional conditions. The AIR integer model either produces a value equivalent to that obtained using infinitely ranged integers or results in a runtime-constraint violation. Instrumented fuzz testing of libraries that have been compiled using a prototype AIR integer compiler has been effective in discovering vulnerabilities in software with low false positive and false negative rates. Furthermore, the runtime overhead of the AIR integer model is low enough for typical applications to enable it in deployed systems for additional runtime protection.

GCC 4.5.0