Software Engineering Institute | Carnegie Mellon University
Software Engineering Institute | Carnegie Mellon University

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Robert Nord
April 2017 - Conference Paper What to Fix? Distinguishing Between Design and Non-design Rules in Automated Tools

Topics: Software Architecture

Authors: Neil Ernst, Stephany Bellomo, Ipek Ozkaya, Robert Nord

This paper describes an empirical study using a structured categorization approach to manually classify 466 software quality rules from three industry tools.

November 2016 - Presentation Got Technical Debt? Surfacing Elusive Technical Debt in Issue Trackers

Topics: Software Architecture

Authors: Stephany Bellomo, Robert Nord, Ipek Ozkaya, Mary Popeck

This presentation on measuring and managing technical debt was given at the 49th CREST Open Workshop Software Architecture and Technical Debt in November 2016.

November 2016 - Presentation Measure It? Manage It? Ignore It? Software Practitioners and Technical Debt

Topics: Software Architecture

Authors: Neil Ernst, Stephany Bellomo, Ipek Ozkaya, Robert Nord, Ian Gorton

This presentation on measuring and managing technical debt was given at the 49th CREST Open Workshop Software Architecture and Technical Debt in November 2016.

November 2016 - Presentation Using Technical Debt to Improve Software Sustainability and Find Software Vulnerabilities

Authors: Ipek Ozkaya, Robert Nord

Introduces analytics use of technical debt

May 2016 - Conference Paper Got Technical Debt? Surfacing Elusive Technical Debt in Issue Trackers

Topics: Software Architecture

Authors: Stephany Bellomo, Robert Nord, Ipek Ozkaya, Mary Popeck

This paper reports on a study of issues from issue trackers to identify technical debt and present an approach for reporting technical debt in issue trackers.

April 2016 - Conference Paper Missed Architectural Dependencies: The Elephant in the Room

Topics: Software Architecture

Authors: Robert Nord, Raghvinder Sangwan, Julien Delange, Peter H. Feiler, Luke Thomas (Indiana University–Purdue University), Ipek Ozkaya

This paper presents an in-depth study of a safety-critical system that underwent major changes as a result of missed architectural dependencies.

January 2016 - Article Reducing Friction in Software Development

Topics: Software Architecture

Authors: Paris Avgeriou (University of Groningen, The Netherlands)), Philippe Kruchten, Robert Nord, Ipek Ozkaya, Carolyn Seaman (University of Maryland Baltimore County)

Getting ahead of the software quality and innovation curve will involve establishing technical-debt management as a core software engineering practice.

November 2015 - Presentation Technical Debt: Why Should You Care?

Authors: Ipek Ozkaya, Robert Nord

This presentation explores common fallacies about technical debt and includes possible actions that development teams can take to better manage it.

October 2015 - Poster Improving Software Sustainability through Data-Driven Technical Debt Management Poster (SEI 2015 Research Review)

Authors: Ipek Ozkaya, Robert Nord

This work aims to improve sustainment decision making by identifying technical debt indicators and building correlations between them and project measures.

October 2015 - Presentation Improving Software Sustainability Through Data-Driven Technical Debt Management

Authors: Ipek Ozkaya, Robert Nord

This work aims to improve sustainment decision making by identifying technical debt indicators and building correlations between them and project measures.

August 2015 - Conference Paper Measure It? Manage It? Ignore It? Software Practitioners and Technical Debt

Topics: Software Architecture

Authors: Neil Ernst, Stephany Bellomo, Ipek Ozkaya, Robert Nord, Ian Gorton

This paper reports on a survey of 1,831 software engineers and architects, and follow-up interviews of seven software engineers, to determine the most important sources of technical debt.

June 2015 - Technical Report Enabling Incremental Iterative Development at Scale: Quality Attribute Refinement and Allocation in Practice

Topics: Software Architecture

Authors: Neil Ernst, Stephany Bellomo, Robert Nord, Ipek Ozkaya

This report describes industry practices used to develop business capabilities and suggests approaches to enable large-scale iterative development, or agile at scale.

October 2014 - Conference Paper Evolutionary Improvements of Cross-Cutting Concerns: Performance in Practice

Topics: Software Architecture

Authors: Stephany Bellomo, Neil Ernst, Robert Nord, Ipek Ozkaya

This paper describes two key challenges of incrementally evolving cross-cutting concerns such as performance during incremental software development.

June 2014 - Conference Paper Toward Design Decisions to Enable Deployability: Empirical Study of Three Projects Reaching for the Continuous Delivery Holy Grail

Topics: Software Architecture

Authors: Stephany Bellomo, Neil Ernst, Robert Nord, Rick Kazman

This paper summarizes three project teams' deployability goals and the architectural decisions they made to enable deployability while practicing continuous delivery.

June 2014 - Conference Paper Architectural Dependency Analysis to Understand Rework Costs for Safety-Critical Systems

Topics: Software Architecture

Authors: Robert Nord, Ipek Ozkaya, Raghvinder Sangwan (Pennsylvania State University), Ronald Koontz (Boeing Company)

This paper describes the need for a thorough understanding and analysis of architectural dependencies to minimize the cost of testing and technology upgrades.

May 2014 - Conference Paper Agile in Distress: Architecture to the Rescue

Topics: Software Architecture

Authors: Robert Nord, Ipek Ozkaya, Philippe Kruchten

For large-scale software-development endeavors, agility is enabled by architecture, and vice versa, and architecture supports high-priority business features.

April 2014 - Presentation Welcome to SAM 2014

Topics: Software Architecture

Authors: Paris Avgeriou (University of Groningen, The Netherlands), Heiko Koziolek, Robert Nord, Ipek Ozkaya

This presentation was part of the First International Workshop on Software Architecture Metrics, held at the 11th Working IEEE/IFIP Conference on Software Architecture.

March 2014 - Article Technical Debt at the Crossroads of Research and Practice: Report on the Fifth International Workshop on Managing Technical Debt

Authors: Davide Falessi (Fraunhofer Center for Experimental Software Engineering), Philippe Kruchten, Robert Nord, Ipek Ozkaya

This article reports on the Fifth International Workshop on Managing Technical Debt, where participants shared emerging practices used in software development organizations.

February 2014 - Article How to Agilely Architect an Agile Architecture

Topics: Software Architecture

Authors: Stephany Bellomo, Philippe Kruchten, Robert Nord, Ipek Ozkaya

In this article, we present lessons learned about the characteristics of an Agile architecture that enabled an organization to develop its architecture in an Agile manner and continue to rapidly deliver features when more stringent quality attribute requi

September 2013 - Article Technical Debt: Towards a Crisper Definition, Report on the 4th International Workshop on Managing Technical Debt

Authors: Philippe Kruchten, Robert Nord, Ipek Ozkaya, Davide Falessi (Fraunhofer Center for Experimental Software Engineering)

This article reports on the Fourth International Workshop on Managing Technical Debt, where participants defined technical debt and the limits of the metaphor.

September 2013 - Conference Paper Variations on Using Propagation Costs to Measure Architecture Modifiabilty Properties

Topics: Software Architecture

Authors: Robert Nord, Ipek Ozkaya, Raghvinder Sangwan, Julien Delange, Marco Gonzalez-Rojas (University of British Columbia), Philippe Kruchten

Demonstrates how enhancing the propogation metric based on architectural metrics results in enhancements detection of modifiability properties not detectable by the propagation cost metric.

July 2013 - Conference Paper Understanding the Role of Constraints on Architecturally Significant Requirements

Topics: Software Architecture

Authors: Neil Ernst, Ipek Ozkaya, Robert Nord, Julien Delange, Stephany Bellomo, Ian Gorton

This paper describes a case study conducted to identify architecturally significant requirements that were impacted by tool selection.

July 2013 - Article Integrate End to End Early and Often

Topics: Software Architecture, TSP

Authors: Felix Bachmann, Luis Carballo, Jim McHale, Robert Nord

This article discusses using architecture-centric engineering and the Team Software Process to develop software for a new trading engine at the Mexican Stock Exchange.

June 2013 - Article Beyond Scrum + XP: Agile Architecture Practice

Topics: Software Architecture

Authors: Ipek Ozkaya, Robert Nord, Stephany Bellomo, Heidi Brayer

This article highlights several approaches to agile architecture that organizations have applied and provides an in-depth release planning and roadmap planning.

May 2013 - Conference Paper A Study of Enabling Factors for Rapid Fielding

Topics: Software Architecture

Authors: Stephany Bellomo, Robert Nord, Ipek Ozkaya

This paper summarizes the practices that practitioners interviewed from Agile projects found most valuable and provides an overarching scenario for insight into how and why these practices emerge.

May 2013 - Conference Paper Elaboration on an Integrated Architecture and Requirement Practice

Topics: Software Architecture

Authors: Stephany Bellomo, Robert Nord, Ipek Ozkaya

This paper elaborates the practice of prototyping with quality attribute focus to gain a better understanding of how this practice works and what the benefits of the approach are.

May 2013 - Article Architecting for Large-Scale Agile Development: A Risk-Driven Approach

Topics: Software Architecture

Authors: Ipek Ozkaya, Michael J. Gagliardi, Robert Nord

This article focuses on two agile architecting methods that provide rapid feedback on the state of agile team support: architecture-centric risk factors for adoption of agile development at scale and incremental architecture evaluations.

November 2012 - White Paper Technical Debt: From Metaphor to Theory and Practice

Topics: Software Architecture

Authors: Philippe Kruchten, Robert Nord, Ipek Ozkaya

This article discusses the technical debt metaphor and considers it beyond a "rhetorical concept." The article explores the role of decision making about developmental activities and future changes and the evolution that the software needs to undergo.

October 2012 - Article Making Architecture Visible to Improve Flow Management in Lean Software Development

Topics: Software Architecture

Authors: Robert Nord, Ipek Ozkaya, Raghvinder Sangwan

This article explains how the flow management concept from lean software development can provide a framework for balancing the allocation of critical architectural tasks to development effort.

September 2012 - Article Technical Debt in Software Development: From Metaphor to Theory, Report on the Third International Workshop on Managing Technical Debt

Authors: Philippe Kruchten, Robert Nord, Ipek Ozkaya, Joost Visser (Software Improvement Group, Netherlands)

This article reports on the Third International Workshop on Managing Technical Debt, where participants considered a research agenda for managing technical debt.

August 2012 - Conference Paper In Search of a Metric for Managing Architectural Technical Debt

Topics: Software Architecture

Authors: Robert Nord, Ipek Ozkaya, Philippe Kruchten, Marco Gonzalez-Rojas (University of British Columbia)

This paper describes an architecture-focused and measurement-based approach to developing a metric that will assist in strategically managing technical debt.

August 2012 - Technical Report Results of SEI Line-Funded Exploratory New Starts Projects

Authors: Len Bass, Rick Kazman, Edwin J. Morris, Brad Myers, William Nichols, Robert Nord, Ipek Ozkaya, Raghvinder Sangwan, Soumya Simanta, Ofer Strichman, Peppo Valetto, Nanette Brown, Gene Cahill, William Casey, Sagar Chaki, Cory Cohen, Dionisio de Niz, David French, Arie Gurfinkel

This report describes the line-funded exploratory new starts (LENS) projects that were undertaken during fiscal year 2011. For each project, the report presents a brief description and a recounting of the research that was done, as well as a synopsis of the results of the project.

May 2012 - Article Architecting for Sustainable Software Delivery

Topics: Software Architecture

Authors: Robert Nord, Ronald Koontz (Boeing Company)

This article explains five architecture practices that support the evolving software system and delivery of new capabilities.

May 2012 - Article Architecting for Sustainable Software Delivery

Topics: Software Architecture

Authors: Ronald Koontz (Boeing Company), Robert Nord

With increasing emphasis on avionics system rapid development and reduced cycle times, software architecting practices can be applied with agility to enhance evolving stakeholder concerns while sustaining long-term business goals.

May 2012 - Presentation Driving Out Technical Risk by Blending Architecture, Process, and Project Discipline

Authors: Jim McHale, Robert Nord

A presentation from the Architecture and Process track at SATURN 2012, May 7-11, 2012, St Petersburg, FL.

May 2012 - Article Architectural Tactics to Support Rapid and Agile Stability

Topics: Software Architecture

Authors: Felix Bachmann, Robert Nord, Ipek Ozkaya

This article presents three tactics that support rapid and agile stability: aligning feature-based development and system decomposition, creating an architectural runway, and using matrix teams.

September 2011 - Article Managing Technical Debt in Software Development: Report on the 2nd International Workshop on Managing Technical Debt

Authors: Ipek Ozkaya, Philippe Kruchten, Robert Nord, Nanette Brown

This article reports on the Second International Workshop on Managing Technical Debt, where participants discussed current practiced and a research agenda.

May 2011 - Presentation Using Architecture-Centric Engineering on a TSP Project

Topics: TSP

Authors: Luis Carballo, Jim McHale, Robert Nord

A presentation from SATURN 2011 on architecture-centric engineering and its uses with TSP.

April 2011 - Conference Paper Analysis and Management of Architectural Dependencies in Iterative Release Planning

Topics: Software Architecture

Authors: Nanette Brown, Robert Nord, Ipek Ozkaya

Authors assert that the ability to quantify architecture quality with measurable criteria provides engineering guidance for iterative release planning.

March 2011 - Webinar Architecture+TSP = High Quality+Fast

Topics: Software Architecture, TSP

Authors: Felix Bachmann, Jim McHale, Robert Nord

This presentation on software architecture and the TSP was delivered by Felix Bachmann, Jim McHale, and Robert Nord at the SEI's SATURN 2011 workshop.

December 2010 - White Paper Enabling Agility Through Architecture

Topics: Software Architecture

Authors: Nanette Brown, Robert Nord, Ipek Ozkaya

Enabling Agility Through Architecture: A Crosstalk article by Nanette Brown, Rod Nord, and Ipek Ozkaya.

December 2010 - Article Enabling Agility Through Architecture

Topics: Software Architecture

Authors: Nanette Brown, Robert Nord, Ipek Ozkaya

This article discusses the important role that architecture plays in effectively applying Agile practices to software development.

December 2010 - Technical Report Combining Architecture-Centric Engineering with the Team Software Process

Topics: Software Architecture, TSP

Authors: Robert Nord, Jim McHale, Felix Bachmann

ACE methods and the TSP provides an iterative approach for delivering high quality systems on time and within budget. The combined approach helps organizations that must set an architecture/developer team in motion using mature, disciplined engineering practices that produce quality software quickly.

November 2010 - Article Managing Technical Debt in Software-Reliant Systems

Topics: Software Architecture

Authors: Nanette Brown, Robert Nord, Ipek Ozkaya, Rick Kazman, Philippe Kruchten

This paper describes how software engineers can manage technical debt based on models of their economic impact.

October 2010 - Book Documenting Software Architectures: Views and Beyond, Second Edition

Topics: Software Architecture

Authors: Felix Bachmann, Len Bass, Paul C. Clements, David Garlan, James Ivers, Reed Little, Paulo Merson, Robert Nord, Judith A. Stafford

This book provides the most complete and current guidance on how to capture a software architecture in a commonly understandable form.

September 2010 - Presentation TSP Plays the ACE: Using Architecture-Centric Engineering on a TSP Project

Topics: TSP

Authors: Luis Carballo (Bursatec), Jim McHale, Robert Nord

Presentation given at TSP Symposium on September 21-23, 2010

May 2010 - White Paper The Hard Choices Game Explained

Topics: Software Architecture

Authors: Nanette Brown, Philippe Kruchten, Erin Lim, Robert Nord, Ipek Ozkaya

The Hard Choices game was developed to give participants a better understanding of the strategies they employ during software development and the implications of investing effort to gain an advantage or paying a price to take shortcuts.

December 2009 - Technical Note A Structured Approach for Reviewing Architecture Documentation

Topics: Software Architecture

Authors: Robert Nord, Paul C. Clements, David Emery, Rich Hilliard

This technical note proposes a structured approach for reviewing architecture documentation that is centered on the documentation's stakeholders and engages them in a guided manner so as to ensure that the documentation will be ultimately useful to them.

April 2009 - Presentation The Impact of Conducting ATAM Evaluations on Army Programs (SATURN 2009)

Authors: John K. Bergey, Stephen Blanchette, Jr., Mark H. Klein, Robert Nord

This presentation describes the results of a study of the impact of software architecture practices conducted with Army programs.

April 2009 - Special Report Impact of Army Architecture Evaluations

Topics: Software Architecture

Authors: Robert Nord, John K. Bergey, Stephen Blanchette, Jr., Mark H. Klein

This 2009 report describes the results of a study of the impact that the ATAM evaluations and QAWs had on Army programs.

December 2008 - Technical Report Results of SEI Independent Research and Development Projects (FY 2008)

Authors: Dionisio de Niz, Gabriel Moreno, Robert Nord, Ipek Ozkaya, Daniel Plakosh, Ragunathan Rajkumar, Lui R. Sha, Robert W. Stoddard, Kurt C. Wallnau, Charles B. Weinstock, Lutz Wrage, Sherman Eagles, Peter H. Feiler, John B. Goodenough, Jörgen Hansson, Paul Jones, Rick Kazman, Mark H. Klein, Insup Lee

This report describes the independent research and development (IRAD) projects that were conducted during fiscal year 2008 (October 2007 through September 2008).

September 2007 - Technical Report Modifiability Tactics

Topics: Software Architecture

Authors: Felix Bachmann, Len Bass, Robert Nord

This report describes how architectural tactics are based on the parameters of quality attribute models.

November 2006 - Technical Report Attribute-Driven Design (ADD), Version 2.0

Topics: Software Architecture

Authors: Rob Wojcik, Felix Bachmann, Len Bass, Paul C. Clements, Paulo Merson, Robert Nord, William G. Wood

This report revises the steps of the Attribute-Driven Design (ADD) method and offers practical guidelines for carrying out each step.

September 2006 - Technical Report Risk Themes Discovered Through Architecture Evaluations

Topics: Software Architecture

Authors: Len Bass, Robert Nord, William G. Wood, David Zubrow

This 2006 report analyzes the output of 18 evaluations conducted using the Architecture Tradeoff Analysis (ATAM). The goal of the analysis was to find patterns in the risk themes identified during those evaluations.

August 2006 - Technical Report Proceedings of the Second Software Architecture Technology User Network (SATURN) Workshop

Authors: Robert Nord

This report describes the second SATURN workshop format, discussion, and results, as well as plans for future SATURN workshops.

April 2006 - Presentation Risk Themes from ATAM Data: Preliminary Results

Authors: Len Bass, Robert Nord, William G. Wood

In this 2006 presentation, Len Bass, Robert Nord, and William G. Wood of the Software Engineering Institute (SEI) present a preliminary analysis of the results of a collection of ATAMs.

April 2006 - Presentation SATURN SEI Software Architecture Technology User Network

Authors: Robert Nord

Presentation by Robert L. Nord, Technical Staff (SEI) at the Second SEI Software Architecture Technology User Network Workshop (SATURN 2006).

April 2006 - Presentation Architectural Evolution (SATURN 2006)

Authors: Felix Bachmann, Robert Nord

This page contains slides from the Architecture Evolution Working Session that was hosted by Felix Bachmann and Robert Nord at SATURN 2006. This session was meant to convey preliminary ideas for the purpose of getting feedback.

September 2005 - Technical Note Proceedings of the First Software Architecture Technology User Network (SATURN) Workshop

Topics: Software Architecture

Authors: Robert Nord, Len Bass, Paul C. Clements, Linda M. Northrop, James E. Tomayko

This report describes the format, discussion, and results of the first SATURN workshop, and outlines the plans for future SATURN workshops. 

September 2004 - Technical Note Integrating Software-Architecture-Centric Methods into Extreme Programming (XP)

Topics: Software Architecture

Authors: Robert Nord, James E. Tomayko, Rob Wojcik

The report presents a summary of XP (Extreme Programming) and examines the potential uses of the SEI's architecture-centric methods.

July 2004 - Technical Note Integrating the Quality Attribute Workshop (QAW) and the Attribute-Driven Design (ADD) Method

Topics: Software Architecture

Authors: Robert Nord, William G. Wood, Paul C. Clements

This technical note reports on a proposal to integrate the SEI Quality Attribute Workshop (QAW) and the SEI Attribute-Driven Design (ADD) method.

July 2004 - Technical Report Integrating Software-Architecture-Centric Methods into the Rational Unified Process

Topics: Software Architecture

Authors: Rick Kazman, Philippe Kruchten, Robert Nord, James E. Tomayko

This report presents a summary of the RUP (Rational Unified Process) and examines the potential uses of the SEI's architecture-centric methods.

April 2004 - Technical Report Documenting Component and Connector Views with UML 2.0

Topics: Software Architecture

Authors: James Ivers, Paul C. Clements, David Garlan, Robert Nord, Bradley Schmerl, Oviedo Silva (Carnegie Mellon School of Computer Science)

This 2004 report explores how changes in UML 2.0 affect UML's suitability for documenting component and connector views.

December 2003 - Technical Note Integrating the Architecture Tradeoff Analysis Method (ATAM) with the Cost Benefit Analysis Method (CBAM)

Topics: Software Architecture

Authors: Robert Nord, Mario R. Barbacci, Paul C. Clements, Rick Kazman, Mark H. Klein, Liam O'Brien, James E. Tomayko

This technical note reports on a proposal to integrate the SEI ATAM (Architecture Tradeoff Analysis Method) and the CBAM (Cost Benefit Analysis Method).

September 2003 - Technical Note A Life-Cycle View of Architecture Analysis and Design Methods

Topics: Software Architecture

Authors: Rick Kazman, Robert Nord, Mark H. Klein

This report examines the architecture-centric analysis and design methods that were created at the SEI between 1993 and 2003.

July 2003 - Technical Note Documenting Software Architectures in an Agile World

Topics: Software Architecture

Authors: Paul C. Clements, James Ivers, Reed Little, Robert Nord, Judith A. Stafford

This report compares the Software Engineering Institute's Views and Beyond approach for documenting software architectures with the documentation philosophy embodied in agile software-development methods.

June 2002 - Technical Note Documenting Software Architecture: Documenting Interfaces

Topics: Software Architecture

Authors: Felix Bachmann, Len Bass, Paul C. Clements, David Garlan, James Ivers, Reed Little, Robert Nord, Judith A. Stafford

This report provides guidance for documenting the interfaces to software elements.

January 2002 - Technical Note Documenting Software Architecture: Documenting Behavior

Topics: Software Architecture

Authors: Felix Bachmann, Len Bass, Paul C. Clements, David Garlan, James Ivers, Reed Little, Robert Nord, Judith A. Stafford

This report describes ways to document the behavior of systems, subsystems, and components of software architecture.

August 2001 - Technical Note Documenting Software Architectures: Organization of Documentation Package

Topics: Software Architecture

Authors: Felix Bachmann, Len Bass, Paul C. Clements, David Garlan, James Ivers, Reed Little, Robert Nord, Judith A. Stafford

That comprehensive handbook outlines how to produce high-quality documentation for software architectures.

May 2001 - Special Report SEI Workshop on Software Architecture Representation, 16-17 January 2001

Topics: Software Architecture

Authors: Felix Bachmann, Paul C. Clements, David Garlan, James Ivers, Reed Little, Robert Nord, Judith A. Stafford

This report summarizes the discussions from the 2001 Architecture Representation Workshop, where five leading software architects and practitioners were invited to discuss aspects of the architecture representation with senior members of the SEI technical staff.

March 2000 - Special Report Software Architecture Documentation in Practice: Documenting Architectural Layers

Topics: Software Architecture

Authors: Felix Bachmann, Len Bass, Jeromy Carriere, Paul C. Clements, David Garlan, James Ivers, Robert Nord, Reed Little

The 2000 report lays out our approach and organization for the book-in-planning titled Software Architecture Documentation in Practice, and provides guidance for the layer diagram.